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GI Microbiota and Regulation of the Immune System


GI Microbiota and Regulation of the Immune System



von: Gary B. Huffnagle, Mairi Noverr

190,39 €

Verlag: Springer
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 07.03.2009
ISBN/EAN: 9780387095509
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 149

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Beschreibungen

This book covers current trends in the investigation of GI microbiota. It examines the relationship between the microbiota and the immune system from a variety of angles.
Section I. Overview Chapters 1. Overview of Gut Immunology Katie Lynn Mason, Gary B. Huffnagle, Mairi C. Noverr and John Y. Kao Abstract Introduction: Tolerance vs. Inflammation Gastrointestinal Tract Architecture Components of the Gut Immune Response Coordination of the Gut Immune Response Importance of the Gi Microbiota Summary 2. The Commensal Microbiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract Janet M. Manson, Marcus Rauch and Michael S. Gilmore Abstract Introduction Culture-Dependent Versus Culture-Independent Techniques Bacterial Diversity Regional Colonization of the GI Tract Influences on Microbiota Future Study of GI Tract Ecology Section II. Current Techniques 3. Overview of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota Vincent B. Young and Thomas M. Schmidt Abstract Introduction Structure of the Intestinal Microbial Community Functional Aspects of the Intestinal Microbiota Methods to Study the Structure and Function of the Gut Microbiota The Microbiota in the Context of the Intestinal Ecosystem Ecologic Statistical Analysis as a Means to Reduce Data Complexity Summary 4. Effects of Microbiota on Gi Health: Gnotobiotic Research Robert Doug Wagner Abstract Introduction Immunodeficient Gnotobiotic Models Immunological Effects of GI Tract Infections in Gnotobiotic Animals Gnotobiotic Studies of Microbial Antagonism Microbiota Effects on Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue Architecture Inflammatory Responses to the Microbiota New Directions for Gnotobiotic Studies of the Microbiota and Immunity Section III. Interaction with the Host 5. positive interactions with the microbiota: Probiotics Marko Kalliomäki, Seppo Salminen and ErikaIsolauri Abstract Introduction Definition of a probiotic Traditional selection criteria for probiotics and rationale for new ones Importance of Viability of Probiotics Probiotics augment gut barrier mechanisms Probiotics have anti-inflammatory properties in the gut Atopic disease is a target for probiotic intervention Probiotics in clinical studies with allergic diseases Probiotics May have additive positive effects with infant diet Novel molecular technologies aid in uncovering complex host-probiotic interactions and constructing probiotics with new properties Summary 6. Negative Interactions with the Microbiota: IBD Nita H. Salzman and Charles L. Bevins Abstract Introduction IBD Evidence of Bacterial Involvement in Intestinal Inflammation Primary Cause-Bacteria? Primary Cause-Host? Concluding Comments Section IV. Role of the Diet 7. Diet, Immunity and Functional Foods Lesley Hoyles and Jelena Vulevic Abstract Introduction Colonic Functional Foods Prebiotics Effects of Prebiotics on Immunity Mechanisms for the Effects of Prebiotics on the Immune System Dietary Fibers Other Functional Foods Summary Section V. Host-Microbe Signaling 8. Host-Microbe Communication within the GI Tract Christopher A. Allen and Alfredo G. Torres Abstract The Gastrointestinal Tract Maintaining Physiological and Immunological Homeostasis in the Gut Host-Bacterial Interactions in the Gut Host-Mediated Regulatory Mechanisms Bacterial-Mediated Regulatory Mechanisms The Role of Gut Flora in Immune System Development and Immunological Tolerance Commensal Bacteria, Mucosal Immunity and Development of Inflammatory Disease Novel Mechan
Gary B. Huffnagle, PhD, is a Professor of Internal Medicine (Pulmonary
Diseases) and Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Michigan Medical
School. He holds a BS in microbiology from Pennsylvania State University and a
PhD in immunology from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School.
In addition to conducting research, he teaches undergraduate and graduate classes
in eukaryotic microbiology, microbial symbiosis and experimental immunology
at the University of Michigan. Dr. Huffnagle’s research focuses on the regulation
of pulmonary immunity to infectious agents and allergens. In the past 5 years, his
attention has turned to the role of the indigenous microbiota in immune system
functioning, as well as the role of probiotics in animal and human health. He has
been awarded research grants from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
(NHL BI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the Francis
Families Foundation and the Burroughs-Wellcome Fund. Dr. Huffnagle serves or
has served on editorial boards for the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
and the American Association of Immunologists (AAI), as well as on advisory and
review panels for the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Mairi C. Nove rr, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Immunology and
Microbiology at Wayne State University Medical School. She earned a BA in biology
from Kalamazoo College in 1996 and a PhD in microbiology and immunology
from the University of Michigan in 2002. Dr. Noverr’s current research focuses on
investigating mechanisms of immunomodulation by the opportunistic yeast Candida
albicans during host-pathogen interactions and how interactions with other members
of the microbiota influence these interactions. Her laboratory is investigating
signaling compounds called oxylipins that are produced by both Candida and the
host, which can influence the microbiology of the fungus and the activity of host
immune system cells. Projects in the laboratory include molecular characterization
of the fungal oxylipin biosynthetic pathways and determining the effects of oxylipins
during Candida pathogenesis, in modulating host immune cell function, and
during fungal-bacterial interactions. She has been awarded research funding from
the Francis Families Foundation.

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